Sources of Lead

Lead Paint

If your home was built before 1978, you most likely have lead paint inside or outside your home. Most often this paint is underneath many layers of newer paint. Lead-based paint becomes a hazard when it begins to chip, peel, crack or chalk, or when home renovation projects disrupt the paint. When lead-based paint begins to chip, it often chips or peels in rectangles or squares like an alligator skin and rubs off with a chalky residue.

Most children are exposed to lead when lead-based paint cracks, chips, peels or chalks, especially around windows and doors. This creates dust or small paint chips that can get on a child’s hands or toys. It only takes a small amount of lead dust to elevate the amount of lead in a child’s blood.

What can you do?

  1. Wipe surfaces where paint is chipping (especially windows, doors and baseboards) with a disposable wet cloth. Use a HEPA vacuum specifically designed for lead dust. One can be rented through the North Shore Health Department. Never sweep chipping paint and do not scrape or sand chipping or peeling paint surfaces. This only creates lead dust. 
  2. Cover peeling paint or plaster temporarily with duct tape or contact paper. A more permanent fix is to safely remove and replace lead-painted surfaces by hiring a certified renovator or lead abatement contractor.
  3. Replace old windows and doors. Friction surfaces like windows and doors can create lead paint dust. Replacing these windows and doors using lead-safe home renovation steps or by working with a certified contractor can remove the hazard from your home.
  4. Wash your child’s hands and toys often so that lead dust or dirt is removed. Always wash hands before eating.

For a list of companies certified in lead visit Wisconsin Department of Health Services information on lead.

Drinking Water

When lead is found in drinking water, it is usually because the water can dissolve pipes made of lead. While cities are required to treat their water to reduce the risk, when water sits in these pipes for a period of time, lead can get into the drinking water.

The North Shore's drinking water comes from multiple sources including the North Shore Water CommissionMilwaukee Water WorksCity Water, and personal wells. The water from each of the public sources (but not wells), is treated to reduce the risk of lead in the water. Contact your individual city or village to find out where your water comes from and visit the individual water utility company's website for information on their water quality. Water mains are not made of lead and water from the water utility plants meet all federal guidelines for water quality, but older homes may have a lead service line or lead pipes bringing water into the home. You can find out about your service lines by contacting your city or village hall. If your home is serviced by a private well it is your responsibility to have the well tested which can be done by contacting the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene.

Inside your home, lead may also have been used in solder (which joins pipes together) or in old brass fixtures. A licensed plumber can help you determine if the plumbing or fixtures inside your home may be made of lead.

What you can do If you have a lead service line or plumbing:

  1. Use a filter certified to remove lead from drinking water. This is especially important when preparing baby formula. The use of a filter certified to remove lead is also recommended if you have children under the age of 6, pregnant women, or breastfeeding women in the home. Home filtration systems can reduce or eliminate lead. Be sure to look for products certified by NSF/ANSI under Standard 53 for the removal of lead and follow all manufacturer’s instructions on installation and maintenance. Find recommendations about drinking water filters here, or or download the list here.
  2. Run your water. If your water has not been used for several hours, run the cold water tap for at least 3 minutes (until it is noticeably colder) before using tap water for drinking or cooking. This will insure that the water leaving the tap is from the water mains and not water that may have been sitting in pipes in the home for a prolonged period of time.
  3. Drink and cook with water from the cold water tap. Hot water may dissolve lead more quickly. Boiling water will not remove lead. Remove any faucet aerators about once a month, rinse them out, and put them back on the faucet.
  4. Replace your lead service line or interior plumbing.

For more drinking water safety information, visit our FAQs about Lead in Water.


The most common way for lead to get into soil is from lead paint on the outside of a house. If your home was built before 1978, it most likely has lead-based paint on its exterior. When old paint chips, peels or is scraped off, it falls onto the soil. The area where old paint has fallen is called the drip zone. Soil can also be contaminated along busy roadways from the time when gasoline contained lead, as well as areas where old factories that used lead once stood.

What can you do?

  1. Cover bare soil in your yard with wood chips or grass, and cover walkways with cement or gravel.
  2. Keep children’s play areas away from bare soil and plant gardens in raised beds that are away from painted buildings.
  3. Always take off your shoes when you go inside a home so that you don’t bring dirt into the house.


Additional Sources of Lead:

Products, Folk Remedies, Jobs and Hobbies
High levels of lead have been found in everyday items around the home and can include:

  • Imported food or candies
  • Imported or antique toys
  • Imported or antique jewelry
  • Imported or antique furniture
  • Imported medicines
  • Lipstick and other cosmetics
  • Plumbing products
  • Pottery, porcelain, or lead crystal food or liquid containers or cooking ware

Folk remedies can contain dangerous amounts of lead and other chemicals. These can include:

  • "Greta," "Azarcon," "Rueda," "Coral," "Alarcon," "Liga," and "Maria Luisa"
  • "Nzu," "Poto," and "Calabash chalk"
  • "Kohl," "Kahal," "Sormeh," "Surmah," and "Tozali"

Lead can also be brought into the home if you work with lead or lead-based paint or have a hobby that commonly uses leaded materials. Jobs where lead exposure or the use of leaded materials is common include:

  • Construction including renovation and painting
  • Mining
  • Smelting
  • Recycling
  • Restoration and refinishing of furniture and other objects
  • Auto repair and painting
  • Shooting ranges

Hobbies where lead exposure or the use of leaded materials is common include:

  • Hunting
  • Fishing
  • Shooting
  • Stained glass
  • Pottery
  • Model building using weights

What can you do?

  1. Use only lead-free products.
  2. Never place unsafe objects in your mouth and prevent children from placing unsafe objects in their mouths.
  3. Wash your hands and your child's hands before eating or drinking.
  4. Use only approved food and medicines.
  5. Use only food-safe cooking and serving ware to prepare and serve food.
  6. Prevent children from exposure to leaded materials or potentially unsafe products. All work and hobby materials should be kept separate from living areas and inaccessible to children. After potential exposure, you should shower and change clothes before entering your vehicle, living areas, or areas accessible to children. Work clothing or clothing exposed to lead should be removed and laundered separately from other clothes.
  7. Get a product tested if you are unsure about the presence of lead. This is especially important with any pottery, cookware, dishware, or toys imported from other countries that may not have been regulated.

Additional Information on Sources of Lead